Is type 1 diabetes genetic? Understanding the risk factors
If you have type 1 diabetes, you might wonder whether your kids can get the same thing later. Or one of your parents has this disease, what it means to your condition. You should know that your genetic is certainly play a role in type 1 diabetes, the less common of diabetes form which often diagnosed in children and teenagers. No surprise that you want to know about, is type 1 diabetes genetic?
Your environment, start from where you grew up until a food that you eat also play essential role as well. However, it still unknown how much exactly is, all of these things can increase your risk of getting this disease. Your genes will set up the stage; however you cannot be sure on how it will pay out. Even, the exact or precise cause of type 1 diabetes is still unknown. However, genetics, environmental and family history can play important role in developing this harmful health condition as well.
Thing to know about your genes
Keep in mind that there is no diabetes genes that can be turn on or off to give your type 1 diabetes. Instead, a group of them might play a role, including of the dozen of HLA genes. They make your protein which been used for your immune system to stay healthy. Due to type1 diabetes is autoimmune disease, then your body can destroy the cells that produce insulin, and it also makes sense that HLA genes were placed in the front and center.
You should know that there are thousands of versions in the human gene pool. Which one your will get can affect your chance of diabetes in the bigger way. Even, some of them can make you more prone to have it, while others might help you to protect you from have it. You are able to get type 1 diabetes if you produce only a few or without insulin at all, a hormone that helps your body to transform sugar become energy.
There are specific genes were more common in only one group of people than others. This is what ethnicity and race can affect other things as well. Even if you have genes that make you more prone getting type 1 diabetes do not always means that you will definitely get it. Even if you are identical twin, people who have exact genes, sometimes one gets it while another does not get it. This is where the environmental come to its role.
What is genetic cause of type 1 diabetes?
Type 1 diabetes is also polygenic diseases, means this is a disease that implicates many genes as well. The genes in this group were usually located on the structures known as chromosomes inside the cells. These genes can make a protein that used to help your immune system against the unwanted cells. The differences in functioning of genes can cause the differences inside the synthesis of proteins. In the case of this type 1 diabetes, the pancreas cells are considered as external dangerous agents by your immune system inside a body and the body will try to destroy them.
There are about 20 to 40 different chromosomal genes were related to this type 1 diabetes. The biggest contributing genes for type 1 diabetes is known 1DDM1 which been located in the MHC (major histocompability complex) II in a part of chromosome six. This gen at least can cause 40% of family hereditary of this type 1 diabetes.
The role of family history in type 1 diabetes
Around one in each 250 children in US was born in a family who already had type 1 diabetes. The children were born in the affected family also have a risk 5% in developing of type 1 diabetes in age 20 years old. As the comparison, the children who do not have family history only have 0.3% the chance of developing this disease.
A child with family history having type 1 diabetes can be categorized further based on which family member who has this disease. The chance of a child might get type 1 diabetes are as follows:
– There is 3 % of chance if a mother has this type 1 diabetes
– There is 5% of chance if a father has this type 1 diabetes
– There is 8% chance if the sibling has this type 1 diabetes
– And there is 50% chance if the identical twins has this type 1 diabetes
Children who have affected close family members and the first family might have a risk around 20% to develop this condition. These percentages above are depending on how much and type of discrepant genes were passed on from one of parents. These factors finally help you to decide whether this condition might be more dominant in a child. In dominant condition, a child might be more prone of having type 1 diabetes because of higher combination from faulty genes that been received.
The environmental cause in type 1 diabetes
Despite connection of genetics that can be seen on type 1 diabetes, however there are cases which help to develop people who do not have unaffected families. Although the genetic risk might be considered substantial, however the impact and association from environment cannot be overlooked. These factors can be your potential factors as well.
For example, as mentioned before those identical twins, when one twin get type 1 diabetes, the another twin has 50% of possibility to develop this diseases and another 50% of possibility of not having it. This statistic shows that instead of genetic factors, there are other factors, such as environmental exposure that also plays important role in this condition.
However, the condition can be so vary in same state because of the differences of infection history and environmental might be the cause as well. The seasonal variations were being observed having more cases in autumn or during winter season. For this reason, vitamin D is considered play a protective role to decrease people who have risk in developing type 1 diabetes.